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混凝土箱涵施工
点击率:1 资料整理: 来源:公路造价网 发布人:公路造价-冯 时间:2012-8-21
8.5.1整体施工方案:
8.5.1.1基坑开挖深度约5m。基坑边坡坡度11
8.5.1.2采用木模板,钢支撑。模板经过设计后,在加工场地制作好,运至现场安装。两模板之间用对拉螺栓连接。对拉螺栓用Φ12的钢筋制作(中间设止水钢板),上下左右间距均为80cm
8.5.1.3箱涵混凝土似分两次浇注,先浇注底板混凝土,后浇注侧墙和顶板混凝土。施工缝设在底板以上30cm处,缝中安装镀锌钢板止水片。
8.5.1.4施工的重点是后浇部分,而后浇部分的施工重点是侧墙混凝土浇注。后浇部分的侧墙深度为3m,且顶板钢筋密布,浇注振捣十分困难。混合料用串筒送入模板中,每间隔1.5m移动一次串筒。串筒处的顶板钢筋先不绑扎,便于安放串筒。待侧墙混凝土浇注完毕后,再绑扎钢筋。
8.5.1.5侧墙混凝土以50cm的层厚逐层浇注。混合料从一端向另一端均匀地送入模板中,定人定位用插式振动棒振捣。每层均按先边墙,后中墙,再另一边墙的顺序,依次轮流浇注振捣。
8.5.1.6侧墙浇注完成后,紧接着浇注顶板混凝土。从一端向另一端一次浇注成形。
8.5.1.7在顶板最后一道收浆后,用麻袋覆盖,人工浇水养护14d
8.5.1.8非承重模板3d后拆除,承重模板14d后拆除。
8.5.2施工注意事项:
8.5.2.1现场当场取样,对混凝土试块进行抗压、抗渗试验。
8.5.2.2检查地基承载力情况,基底土质为粘土,开挖基坑后,由质量监督站取三处土样进行试验。
8.5.2.3箱涵两侧按规定设有排水边沟和积水井,用水泵及时抽出积水。砼人工浇水养护不能对地基产生影响。
8.5.2.4对支架进行检查,防止因支撑不牢,混凝土在没有达到一定强度
时,箱体产生位移,使混凝土产生过大的剪应力而开裂。模板内支架为门式钢支架,外斜撑为钢支撑。
8.5.2.5人工操作插式振动棒振捣。在顶板混凝土收浆后,用麻袋覆盖,人工浇水养护。
8.5.2.6箱涵混凝土分两次浇注,底板浇注后,对施工缝进行凿毛、清理,再绑扎侧墙、顶板钢筋,安装模板。
8.5.2.7现场振捣按部位责任到人,防止漏振、少振现象。分层振捣,每层厚50cm。均匀出料,均匀放料,不能堆积成堆,以免发生离析现象。振捣完成,通过检查后,再浇注上一层混凝土。
8.5.3钢筋施工工艺
8.5.3.1材料
钢筋砼所使用钢筋,其钢号及规格均应符合设计的规定,钢筋的力学性能必须符合国标的规定。钢筋进场时应有出厂证明书或试验报告单。钢筋在工程中使用前应作力学性能及化学分析复验。钢筋进场后,应根据钢筋的钢号、规格分别存放,不得混放。存放钢筋不得直接接触地面。
8.5.3.2准备工作
操作班组应熟悉设计图纸,了解设计意图,根据图纸情况放实样。核对图纸,计算下料长度。钢筋加工应设专门场地,并根据场地情况作出周密布置,尽量减少场内搬运。
8.5.3.3钢筋的调直与除锈
钢筋弯曲成型前必须调直及除锈。并应符合下列要求:
a.钢筋的表面应洁净,使用前应将表面油渍、油漆污皮、鳞锈等清除干净;
b.钢筋应平直无局部弯折,成盘的钢筋和弯曲的钢筋均应调直;
c.钢筋在调直机上调直后,其表面伤痕不得使钢筋截面积减少5%以上。
8.5.3.4钢筋加工
钢筋经过调直与除锈后,即可进行配料、下料及弯曲成型工艺。
钢筋下料前,应将同直径同钢号不同长度的各种钢筋按设计编号顺序,填写配料表,再根据调直后的钢筋长度统一配料,以减少钢筋短头或减少焊接量。
配料时,对绑扎接头,在受拉区光圆钢筋接头不得超过总面积的25%,螺纹钢筋不得超过50%,在钢筋弯曲及弯矩最大处不得有接头。
弯制钢筋时,除设计有特殊规定外,一律用冷弯。用I级钢筋制成的箍筋,其末端应有弯钩,弯钩的长度应符合规范要求。
8.5.3.5钢筋绑扎和安装
绑扎钢筋前要认真熟悉图纸,核对各部位尺寸、规格、编号,对加工的半成品要检查核对。
绑扎成型后,应根据图纸需要检查各种钢筋规格、数量和长度是否符合图纸的要求,检查钢筋表面是否清洁,如有铁锈油污应先行清除。
8.5.3.6具体绑扎程序:
a.划线:在绑扎部位内利用模板或砼垫层或部分主筋,划出各种主筋、架立筋、箍筋的位置;
b.按划线位置进行摆筋;
c.绑扎已摆好的钢筋;
d.垫水泥垫:相邻两水泥垫间距视底筋直径大小而定,一般控制在0.8~1.0m左右,侧墙加垫时,则应带钢丝的水泥垫,将水泥垫绑在钢筋上以免掉落;
e.水泥垫尺寸约为5cm见方,与设计院净保护层同厚,水泥垫的砂浆配比、标号,均须与原构筑物砼的砂浆相同,并在砂浆强度达到设计要求时方能使用;
f.立墙钢筋在绑扎时,底部应与底板钢筋焊接,以免变位倾倒;
g.箍筋转角与主钢筋的交叉绑扎时,应用铁丝按双对角线绑扎结实,并在每适当距离处加一个电焊焊点,以免钢筋变形。
8.5.4模板工程
8.5.4.1一般规定
a.模板及地基应具有足够的稳定性、刚度和强度,能承受浇灌砼的重量、侧压力以及在施工中可能产生的各项荷载,并不超过规定的挠度;
b.保证工程结构物的设计形状、尺寸以及各部分相互之间位置的正确性;
c.模板面必须平整,接缝严密,不得漏浆;
d.模板的施工设计应制作简单便于拆卸,在拆卸时能尽量减少材料的损伤,并不使新灌注的砼在拆模时受到振动而损伤;
e.木模板及木质支撑材料的工作场地与存放场地,均应选择远离易燃物,其距离应符合消防要求规定,同时还应设置消防设施。
8.5.4.2模板的制作与安装
a.挠曲十分厉害和脆性木材不宜作模板,制作模板的木材应尽量选用挠曲变形小的红、白松,且其含水率不宜大于25%。对与砼不直接接触的带料等,可酌量放宽。
b.制模板前应熟悉设计图纸及整体工程的施工顺序、砼浇筑次序、所用的施工机具、施工工艺与现场环境等详细情况。
c.模板的类型与各种规格尺寸,应根据工程构筑物与模板的材料情况尽量采用定型模板。
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