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两岸针对桥头跳车问题处置对策的比较
点击率:1 资料整理:郭俊飞 来源:公路造价网 发布人:易路教育-冯 时间:2013-4-26
前言
桥头跳车现象就是车辆高速行驶在桥头时产生跳动和冲击,这直接影响行车速度,也影响了行车的舒适与安全,甚至造成行车事故,同时对路面和桥梁也产生附加的冲击荷载,加速桥台、桥头路面及桥梁伸缩装置的破坏,也加快了车辆本身的损坏,直接影响了桥梁和公路的使用寿命及社会效益。
桥头跳车的成因
通过实地测量知道,发生桥头跳车的部位,在较短一平面距离内,路线纵断面高程发生了比较明显甚至是急剧的变化,使该处与前后相邻的纵断面线不能平顺相接。
桥头跳车台阶的产生和形成是多方面的,包括地基地面条件、填料、施工材料以及设计、施工等多方面的原因。
总结起来主要原因如下:
(一)路桥的刚度相差很大。
(二)桥头路堤及护坡范围内地基处理不彻底。
(三)压实度达不到标准。
(四)路面渗水。
(五)桥台后方填土含水量大 。
台后填土措施及规范比较
(一)路基处理
大陆针对不同的地质状况,如一般路基、软土路基、湿陷性黄土路基、 季节性冻土路基等采用相应的路基处理措施。
(二)路基处理回填材料之选择
大陆根据(公路路基施工规范2006)及相关施工经验,认为填料宜采用透水性材料、轻质材料、无机结合料等,非透水性材料不得直接用于填料。
1.采用超轻质材料作路堤铺设轻质材料可以减轻路堤自重,有效降低地基应力,减少沉陷并增大稳定安全系数。常用的轻质材料如粉煤灰等。
2.选用透水性良好、摩擦角大、强度高、易压实、沉陷完成快、后期变形小的砂砾填筑路堤或用石灰稳定土处理桥头路堤,或用物理力学性能比较高的流态粉煤灰水泥混合料作为桥台回填料。
3.不准采用高塑性粘土填筑桥头路段。
4.在桥头路堤任一高度的平面内,不应采用不同填料填筑。
5.季节性冻融地区的桥头路基上部采用水中不易崩解、冻融性好、强度高的粗粒土填筑,填筑深度应不小于最大冻深(包括路面结构层厚度),以防冻胀时路面产生有害变形冻融,造成路床承载力下降。易受地表水、地下水影响的矮路基地段,除做好路基、路面排水进行路基全防护外,还应将路侧边沟远离路基,以减少水对路基的影响。
台湾(桥梁工程施工纲要)则规定回填料不得含有木材或其他杂物。透水材料应为洁净、坚硬耐磨之砂、砾石或碎石,不得含有机物、黏土块或其它有害物质。再生粒料系指将营建剩余土石、废弃混凝土、高炉炉碴或钢炉碴轧制而成之粒料。再生粒料之质量应符合相关规定。
(三)回填施工规范
两岸回填施工规范比较如表1所示。
(四)其它相关要求
其它相关要求如表2所示。
另外大陆关于台后填土施工要求(压实度,粒径,CBR)见表3所示。
 表1两岸路基填土施工规范比较

大陆(公路路基施工规范2006) 
台湾(桥梁工程施工纲要2001 
一般路基段填土处理:
a.路基必须分层填筑分层碾压并严格控制含水量。每层松铺厚度宜小于10~20cm,当采用小型夯具时,一级以上公路松铺厚度不宜大于15cm
b.含水量应控制在压实最佳含水量±2%之内。
c.路基填筑宽度每侧应宽出填筑层设计宽度30cm,压实宽度不小于设计宽度,最后削坡。
d.路基表面应具有纵向和横向防排水系统,防止积水。
e.征地边线外两侧各10m范围内禁止集中取土。
f.路基填筑范围内严禁作为施工便道使用。
g.路基填筑应均匀密实,路床顶面横坡与路拱横坡一致。
h.路基填土压实度、填料最小强度及最大粒径不小于施工要求(如表3所示)。
填方及路堤区域内构造物回填,使用机械夯实时,每层实方厚度不得大于15cm;若构造物周围之空间足够小型压路机施工时(不得使用高性能之振动压路机施工),则其每层压实方厚度经工程司同意后可酌予增至20cm。每层压实度,须符合以AASHTO T180试验求得最大干密度之95%以上。 

表2其它相关要求

项目
大陆(公路路基施工规范2006
台湾(桥梁工程施工纲要2001
级配与粒径要求
级配良好的砾类土、砂类土;最大粒径不小于施工要求(如表3所示)。
用于回填构造物周围之认可材料,应为10cm以下之粒料,且应级配良好易于压实者。
回填日期及步骤要求
应注意结构物两端对称填筑施工,桥台背后与锥坡的填土与压实应对称或同时进行。台背填土宜与削坡填土同时进行。
混凝土构造物周围,至少应在浇置混凝土7日后桥台、桥墩、挡土墙、箱涵、翼墙及端墙等周围之回填,两边需同时进行,并使其高度大致相等。
台背填土范围
台背填土顺路缘方向长度,顶部为距翼墙尾端不小于台高加2m,底部距基础内线不小于2m;拱桥台背填土长度不应小于台高的3~4
无详细说明
检验
桥头段每50m21点,且每点必须合格,每一压实层的松铺厚度不宜超过20cm
粒径检验,500m21
压实度检验每一层每100m2 1

表3台后填土施工要求(压实度,粒径,CBR)

分类
压实度(%
填料最大粒径
填料最小强度
cm
CBR
上路床(030cm
96
10
8
下路床(3080cm
96
10
5
上路堤(80150cm
94
15
4
下路堤(>150cm
93
15
3

桥台后方结构处置对策
台湾主要采用的是进桥板+技术回填的方式进行桥头跳车问题的处置,如图1所示。
大陆主要采用的结构措施主要有以下几种:
(一)设置桥头搭板和枕梁
搭板的一端支承在台背上,用锚栓固定,另一端、可直接置于石灰稳定土或路面基层上,不设枕梁。如图2所示。搭板长度依据设计行车速度、路堤填土高度及预计的桥台与台后填土的施工后沉降差的大小来确定,可选用4m、6m、8m、10m、12m几种长度。搭板和枕梁均为钢筋混凝土就地浇注,混凝土强度不小于C25(N/mm2)。搭板应设置一个较大的纵坡i2,若路线纵坡为i1,则对搭板纵坡的要求为10%≤i2-i1≤15%,以保证在台后长度方向上的沉陷均匀分布。
图1 进桥板+技术回填
图2 搭板+枕梁
(二)设置变厚式埋板
对沥青混凝土路面,在桥台连接处增设变厚式水泥混凝土埋板。如图3所示。在搭板、埋板或变厚式板下,为保证连接部位的刚柔层次在水平和垂直方向均渐次变化,宜采用强度及回弹模数均高于路基的路面结构层材料,以提高该部位的整体承受荷重和抗冲刷能力,利于减小桥台错动幅度,调整不均匀沉陷。
(三)设置过渡段路面法
对于不设置桥头搭板的路堤,可设置过渡段临时路面;在搭板尾端与路堤之间一定长度范围内也有设置过渡段路面的做法;待路堤沉降稳定以后,再改铺原设计路面。常用的过渡性路面有预制水泥混凝土和条石铺砌等,如图4所示。这种方法的处理优点是翻修速度快,但不易铺砌平整,行车仍有抖动感觉,砌缝易渗入雨水,有损路基。
图3 变厚式埋板
图4 条石过渡段路面
(四)台后排水措施
台背填筑前,在地基处理后的土拱上设置排水管或盲沟(如图5所示)。具体设置横向排水管或盲沟的方法是在基底上,对基底做必要的处理。然后填筑横坡为3%-4%的夯实粘土拱,再在土拱上挖一条成双向坡的地沟,然后在台背后全宽范围内满铺一层隔水材料,还在地沟内四周铺设有小孔的硬塑料管。塑料排水管的出口应伸出路基外或桥头锥坡外,然后在塑料管的四周填筑透水性好、粒径较大的砂石材料,再分层填筑台后透水性材料,直到路基顶面。
(五)桥头路面处理(伸缩缝布置)
改善搭板与桥梁之间的伸缩缝布置取消普通桥台的部分背墙,只在搭板和梁体间设置一道伸缩缝,这样一来接缝由原来桥台处的两条,即梁体与背墙之间的、搭板与背墙之间的接缝减少为一条梁体与搭板之间的接缝(如图6所示)。
改进后的搭板有以下优点:
(1)接缝减少后,更有利于行车的舒适。
(2)原设计中的两条接缝,在各种因素下常会产生裂缝,雨水渗入裂缝后会造成搭板下水土的流失,导致该处路基发生沉降,使搭板下产生空洞。而改进后的设计,即使该缝出现问题,由该缝所渗入的雨水也不会流到台背后去,比较有效的解决了原设计的问题。
(3)改进设计后,桥台顶部的施工更为方便。
图5 台后排水
图6 桥头路面处理
结论
1.台后填土的处置措施和要求上,大陆由于地域广,土质种类多尔复杂等原因,所以在应对上相对应的措施和要求较全面,在填料选择、回填规范及其他要求上可以相互借鉴。
2.综观解决桥头跳车之有效的方法,台湾的进桥板+技术回填的做法与大陆搭板+枕梁的做法较接近,但在雨水较多或含水量对回填土影响较大时也可同时结合台后排水方式一并建构。通过实际工程中的应用,证明其能基本消除桥头跳车,可取得较满意的效果。 
参考文献
(1)中国公路路基施工规范2006,p.15。
(2)台湾桥梁工程施工纲要2001,02317~02319。
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