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土工合成材料在沥青混凝土路面中的应用
点击率:1 资料整理:未知 来源:公路造价网 发布人:公路造价-冯 时间:2012-4-20
一、目前沥青混凝土路面存在的突出问题
据有关资料统计,沥青混凝土路面造价占公路总造价的1/4~1/3,并且维修经费又绝大部分用于路面,沥青混凝土路面普遍存在的技术和质量难题主要有两点。
一是耐久性差。目前国内沥青混凝土路面较长的使用寿命为8年~12年,普遍短于设计使用寿命(15年~20年),而且因自然环境和运行状况不良,有的路面甚至3年~5年即需要整体翻修改造。
二是路面的早期破坏严重。有的新路开通后2年~3年,长的6年~8年就出现坑槽、开裂、车辙、抗滑性能不足等病害而需要维修。
自20世纪80年代以来,我国虽然在公路设计、施工、原材料等方面水平上有了很大的提高,但公路路面仍然经常发生不少早期破坏现象。除设计和施工方面的原因以外,主要外因是交通量增长过快,重载、超载严重,使道路长期处于超负荷运转状态;主要内因是材料(沥青、骨料等)性能差,导致路面抵抗拉应力(如冷热、干湿的胀缩应力、荷载弯拉与疲劳应力、反射裂缝的扩张应力等)剪应力、渗水和粘结老化等能力相对不足。
由于上述原因产生的不良后果是令人震惊的,即使采用重交通道路沥青和规范规定的混合骨料及级配下,路面也难以承受目前道路运输的现状。
二、改性沥青和SMA技术的不足
我国公路部门为了解决这些严重又紧迫的问题,在学习国外先进经验的基础上采取了一些措施和办法,摸索出一些成功的经验,其中使用最多的改性沥青与SMA路面两项新技术。例如北京市公路局将其用在“国门第一路”(首都机场路)、“国航第一道”(首都机场跑道)、“中华第一街”(长安街)的建设和改造中,取得了良好使用效果和经济效益,两项技术同时采用则效果更好。
但改性沥青和SMA路面两项新技术用于公路工程时仍存在缺陷:
1)它需要的专用设备和材料(优质骨科、改性剂、填料)一般地区难以具备,而且一次性投资较大,其要求的施工技术也比目前常规做法增加了不小的难度。
2)随着近期国内外石油价格的上涨,两项新技术原已较高的成本又将增加。按1998年物价计算,SMA路面每公里成本需增加9.7万元,若与改性沥青同时应用则每公里约增加38.8万元,费用增加多少与是否采用国外原料、加工设备和不同改性剂有关。长期以来,进口道路沥青以高于国际市场近2倍价格输入我国而牟取了暴利。例如在美国、新加坡等国家的沥青价格约90美元/吨,而在我国的销售价格为135美元/吨。我国近年来道路沥青年产量在220万吨以上,在数量和质量上与实际需求都有很大差距,导致进口沥青仍然有增无减。因此这两项新技术在我国也只是在高速公路、高等级公路重要路段、交叉口、停车场、立交桥、机场等使用,还不能像发达国家那样普遍使用。
3)从增加路面抗裂、防渗、隔离、扩散的机理来说,过分依赖于增加沥青结合料的弹性和粘结力,以及增大骨科强度与减少混合料孔隙率的办法并不是最优的。因为沥青结合料的改性能使其抗拉、抗剪的力学性能增加,但幅度终究不会太高;高强骨料也不是各地区均有;混合料孔隙率的降低已近极限,而且在骨科和结合料之间的界面总会因材料的物理和力学性质的差异而不可避免地出现渗水通道。另外其对路基承载能力的改善也无能为力,反而要求更高。
4)沥青材料本身的日晒老化、高温软化、低温脆化、冲击疲劳等问题还有待解决。
三、将土工合成材料引入沥青混凝土路面
在一般车辆荷载作用下,公路三层结构的动稳定度基本取决于表层,而与中、下层关系不大。在目前广泛使用重交通道路沥青和规范规定的混合料骨料级配条件下,如果在面层下部或底面合理采用适合的土工合成材料,既可提高面层的抗裂、防渗性能,还可以对基层或路基承载能力的提高发挥作用,不仅能够相对节省造价和不增加施工难度,而且维修周期将有效延长,破损程度也将减轻。
比如纯水泥混凝土承担更高荷载作用时,如果只考虑水泥的力学性能或骨料的配合比而不加入适当的钢筋(高分子聚合物等非金属)来承担它工作中过大的拉、压、剪应力,那么它至今也不会获得如此广泛的应用。公路、市政等部门何不也将注意力更多转向加筋沥青混凝土的试验研究和设计应用呢?据国外统计数据,公路工程中应用的土工合成材料已占其全部用量的1/3以上。
交通部在1993年就曾将《土工格栅在道路工程中的应用研究》列为“八五”联合攻关课题,其中采用土工格栅防止寒冷地区沥青路面开裂的研究由黑龙江省交通厅承担。河南、湖南、湖北、陕西、黑龙江、北京等地公路部门利用土工格栅修筑了一些试验路。2000年4月26在江苏省连云港市召开了“全国公路土工合成材料应用技术交流会”,并出版了会议论文集,交通部公路司副司长李彦武作了题为“应重视土工合成材料在公路工程中的应用”的报告,报告中介绍了3项措施:制订规范、建立重点土工合成材料企业、修筑示范工程。
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