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万开高速Ⅳ仰型初期支护技术交底
点击率:1 资料整理: 来源:公路造价网 发布人:公路造价-冯 时间:2012-8-20
 
 
      1、适用范围
      Ⅳ型开挖断面共648米,里程分两段ZK27+669—ZK27+580,ZK27+540—ZK27+035,ZK26+941—ZK27+892。
      2、主要施工方法
喷射砼采用湿喷方式,喷射厚度Ⅳ类为12CM,系统锚杆为Φ22mm早强砂浆锚杆,L=2.5M,Ⅳ类间距为120CM,Ⅳ类钢筋网Φ6.5mm,间距为25×25CM。喷射砼采用湿喷方式,喷射过程中掺入一定量的速凝剂,以提高喷射砼的早期强度。
      3、施工图纸
   4、质量要求
         4、1.每一开挖面施工现场,承包人应始终最少拥有一台可正常操作的喷浆机组,在使用前应经检查并批准。承包人还应有备用设备,当出现故障时,能立即投入使用。
         4、2.喷射砼须先选定配合比,并应通过试验合格和监理的认可后,方可投入施工。施工中,喷射砼配料严格按照配合比进行。
         4、3.喷射混凝土前,应埋设标志或利用锚杆外露长度以控制喷射砼的厚度。
         4、4.喷射作业区的气温不应低于+5℃,混合料进入喷射机的温度不应低于+5℃。
         4、5.混凝土喷射作业要求:
         1)隧道开挖后应立即对岩面喷射砼,以防岩体发生松弛。
         2)按施工前试验所取得的方法与条件进行喷射砼作业,在喷射砼达到初凝后方能喷射下一层。首次喷射混凝土的厚度应分层喷射,喷射砼厚度应用获准的方式测定。在隧道全长内每隔10~20至少要取一处试件,从拱中心向两侧边墙每2米取样用以确定强度是否符合要求,取样时要注意不要在有水的部位取样。
         3)喷射砼的回弹物不得重复利用,所有的回弹砼应从工作面清除。
         4)当受喷应与受喷面保持垂直,同时与受喷面保持一定的距离,一般可取0.6~1.0米。
         5)开挖断面周边有金属杆件和钢支撑时,应保证将其背面喷射填满,粘结良好。
         6)新喷射的砼应按规定洒水养护。
        4、6钢架支护
        1)钢架支护的设计与制造应符合《钢结构工程施工及验收规范》(GB50205-95)的要求。钢架支护钢材,应按施工图中标明的采用。在隧道开挖中,各部分安装支护的方法(包括支护的间距),应获监理工程师批准。
        2)钢架支护应准确就位,并经常维护。当监理工程师发现钢架支护安装不当,并提请承包人注意后的48小时内,应由承包人进行调整。由于钢架支护超过规定的容许偏差或其它任何原因造成损坏,其费用由承包人自理。
        4、7木支护
       1)木支护应着重用于临时性应急支护,承包人应在施工前将这烃的支护类型和相应的施规范报监理工程师批准。隧道开挖的系统支护不宜采用木支护,以节省木材。
       2)木支护的梁、柱等主要圆木杆件,其梢径不应小于200mm;跨度大于4米时,梢径不应小于250mm,其他连接杆件梢径可用120~150mm;木板厚度不宜水于50mm。
        4、8锚杆
       1)承包人必须按照图纸或监理工程师指示,在图纸标明处或批准部位提供和安装注浆的或不注浆的锚杆。
       2)注浆锚杆使用在所有需永久支护的部位,注浆使用的浆液应是水泥浆、水泥砂浆或其它批准的材料。
       3)不注浆锚杆使用在所有临时支护的部位。
       4)锚杆的钻孔及其安装方法应经监理工程师批准。锚杆钻孔应圆而直,孔口岩面应整平,钻孔应与岩面垂直。在孔中锚定锚杆后,将锚杆拉伸至规定的轴向荷载。
       5)每根锚杆的抗拔力不得低于设计值,并不应低于50KN,每300根锚杆必须抽样一组进行抗拔力试验,每组不少于3根,并应符合《锚杆喷射砼支护技术规范》(GB50086-2001)的规定。
       6)承包人在工地应备有充足的锚杆和附件的备用件,准备随时使用,以免待料贻误工作。需注浆的钻孔应按监理工程师批准的方法和材料,全部用浆液充填。浆液配合所使用的外加剂、拌和方法、注浆压力、设备和注浆方法,都应经监理工程师批准。一般注浆压力为0.5~1.0MPA,终压力2.0~2.5MPA.
      7)钢筋网的混凝土保护层不应小于20mm,且应与锚杆或钎钉联结牢固。
      5、安全措施
      5、1 隧道各部(包括竖井、斜井、横洞及平行导洞)开挖后,除围岩完整坚硬,以及设计文件中规定的不需支护者外,都必须根据围岩情况、施工方法采取有效的支护。
      5、2 施工期间,现场施工负责人应会同有关人员对支护各部位定期进行检查。在不良地质地段每班应设专人随时检查,当发现支护变形或损坏时,应立即整修和加固;当变形或损坏情况严重时,应先将施工人员撤离现场,再行加固。
      5、3 洞内支护,宜随挖随支护,支护至开挖面的距离一般不得超过4米;如遇石质破碎、风化严重和土质隧道时,应尽量缩小支护工作面。当短期停工时,应将支撑直抵工作面。
      5、4不得将支撑立柱置于废碴或活动的石头上。软弱围岩地段的立柱应加设垫板或垫梁,并加木楔塞紧。
      5、5 采用木支撑时应选用松、柏、杉等坚硬且富有弹性的木材,其梁、柱的梢径不得小于20CM,跨度大于4米时不得小于25CM;其它连接杆件梢径不得小于15CM,木板厚度不得小于5CM。木支撑宜采用简单,直立,易于拆、立的框架结构,并应保证坑道的运输净空。
      5、6钢支架安装,宜选用小型机具进行吊装,并应遵守本规程:“起重吊装”的规定。
      5、7 喷锚支护时,危石应清除,脚手架应牢固可靠,喷射手应配戴防护用品;机械各部应完好正常,压力应保持在0.2MPA左右;注浆管喷嘴严禁对人放置。
      5、8 当发现已喷锚区段的围岩有较大变形或锚杆失效时,应立即在该区段增设加强锚杆,其长度应不小于原锚杆长度的1.5倍。如喷锚后发现围岩突变或围岩变形量超过设计允许值时,宜用钢支架支护。
      5、9 当发现测量数据有不正常变化或突变,洞内或地表位移值大于允许位移值,洞内或地面出现裂缝以及喷层出现异常裂缝时,均应视为危险信号,必须立即通知作业人员撤离现场,待制定治理措施后才能继续施工。
 

 

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